Creating a Reusable SVG Component with Vue.js

Vue


Using Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) images for vector-based assets can help to significantly shed page weight. SVG images can be sized up and down without sacrificing image quality. Individual elements, such as fill and stroke properties, can even be programmatically controlled and animated.

SVG images can be referenced in <img> tags just like an other image format, but inlining SVG elements is the most robust approach because it allows the SVG properties to be dynamically edited and does not require an additional http request. However, for complex images inlining SVG code can be a messy tangle to work with and repeating this code for several images is not very DRY. Using inline SVGs in multiple places might require copy and pasting lengthy chunks of code, which can quickly become difficult to manage and might pollute an otherwise tidy code base.

A solution for this is to use Vue components to wrap the SVG inline code. This allows you to separate the inline SVG code from the rest of your application templates and have multiple instances of the same SVG image each with its own dynamic properties.

Creating the SVG Component

In this example, we’ll develop a reusable SVG component using the HackWild SVG logo developed for this site, though any properly formatted SVG will work. We’ll start by creating a Vue single-file component, Logo.vue and scaffold it with the basic structure:

Logo.vue

<template>
  <svg
    xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg"
    baseProfile="tiny"
    version="1.2"
    viewBox="0 0 422.1 329.5"
  >
    <path
      stroke-width="5"
      stroke-miterlimit="10"
      d="M108.2 262.6L220 39c-44.1 0-84.5 24.9-104.2 64.4L4 327c44.2 0 84.5-24.9 104.2-64.4zM306.2 226.1L418 2.5c-44.1 0-84.5 24.9-104.2 64.4L202 290.5c44.2 0 84.5-24.9 104.2-64.4z"
    />
  </svg>
</template>

<script>
  export default {
    name: 'Logo'
  }
</script>

<style lang="css" scoped></style>

It’s a good idea to name this component in a way that makes sense for your application. Check out the official Vue style guide for best practices.

Register and Mount

Now that we have our SVG component, we’ll register it in our primary App component. We can then mount it anywhere in our application where we’ve registered it using <Logo/>.

App.vue

<template>
  <div id="app">
    <Logo />
  </div>
</template>

<script>
  import Logo from './components/Logo'
  export default {
    name: 'App',
    components: {
      Logo
    }
  }
</script>

Controlling Styles with Props

At this point, our SVG component displays default fill and stroke colors (black) and will expand or contract in size to fill its parent container. To gain control over these properties, let’s create some basic props in our component.

SVG Size

To control the overall size, we’ll set the :width attribute on the <svg> to equal a prop, width. In this case, we’re setting the :height attribute to also equal the width prop because we always want to maintain a square aspect ratio for the logo. We’ll also bind the :stroke-width attribute on the <path> element to equal the strokeWidth prop.

It’s important to note that Vue will transform camel-cased values set in <script> tags to kebab-cased values in the <template> in order to follow the HTML attribute convention. For example, the prop strokeWidth will correlate with :stroke-width attribute.

We’ll set the width and strokeWidth props to be of the type Number (the numeric values passed into the attributes for <svg> elements will default to pixels). We’ll provide a default width value of 50, a default strokeWidth value of 5 and explicitly state that these props are not required.

SVG Fill and Stroke Colors

To control the fill and stroke colors of our SVG component, we’ll define several classes in our <style> section: .white, .green and .green--outline. We can then bind the :class attribute on the <path> element to the color prop. The color prop will be of a type String, have a default value of white and won’t be required.

Logo.vue

<template>
  <svg
    xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg"
    baseProfile="tiny"
    version="1.2"
    viewBox="0 0 422.1 329.5"
    :width="width"
    :height="width"
  >
    <path
      :class="color"
      :stroke-width="strokeWidth"
      stroke-miterlimit="10"
      d="M108.2 262.6L220 39c-44.1 0-84.5 24.9-104.2 64.4L4 327c44.2 0 84.5-24.9 104.2-64.4zM306.2 226.1L418 2.5c-44.1 0-84.5 24.9-104.2 64.4L202 290.5c44.2 0 84.5-24.9 104.2-64.4z"
    />
  </svg>
</template>

<script>
  export default {
    name: 'Logo',
    props: {
      color: {
        type: String,
        default: 'white', // green, green--outline, white
        required: false
      },
      strokeWidth: {
        type: Number,
        default: 5,
        required: false
      },
      width: {
        type: Number,
        default: 50,
        required: false
      }
    }
  }
</script>

<style lang="css" scoped>
  .green {
    fill: #61ffab;
    stroke: none;
  }

  .green--outline {
    fill: #354258;
    stroke: #61ffab;
  }

  .white {
    fill: mintcream;
    stroke: none;
  }
</style>

Passing Props

Now that we’ve readied our component to accept various properties, we can pass those properties in to our mounted components. For the color attribute we’ll pass in green--outline, which correlates to the .green--outline class that we defined in our component. For the :width and :strokeWidth attributes we’ll pass in 150 and 10 respectively to set the <svg> width and <path> stroke width.

It’s important to note that because we need to pass in the width and strokeWidth props as a Number type, we must use the attribute-binding syntax of :width as oppose to width. For example, width=50 will pass in a String to our component and return an error, whereas :width=50 will pass in an actual Number type.

App.vue

<template>
  <div id="app">
    <!-- Logo instance 1 -->
    <Logo color="green--outline" :width="150" :strokeWidth="10" />
    <!-- Logo instance 2 -->
    <Logo color="green" :width="50" />
  </div>
</template>

<script>
  import Logo from './components/Logo'
  export default {
    name: 'App',
    components: {
      Logo
    }
  }
</script>

Wrapping Up

Now that we’ve defined our SVG component as a Vue component with extendible and default values, we can declare another instance of our <Logo/> component with different options. We’ve also separated the logic of our SVG element into its own component. This is a great pattern when you need to use different instances of an SVG image throughout an application.

Interactive Demo

You can edit and view the source for this project at CodeSandbox.